The upper digestive system includes the food pipe (esophagus), stomach and the first part of the small bowel (duodenum). Upper G I Endoscopy/OGD Scopy is a test that enables the doctor to see the lining of the upper digestive system and often make a diagnosis and if necessary to take a biopsy or to do the treatment too at the same time.
What are the Basic Signs & Symptoms for Requiring an Upper G I Endoscopy?
Dysphagia - difficulty in swallowing.
Dyspepsia - acidity/gaseous bloating/acid reflux.
Persistent isolated nausea or vomiting.
In the event of persistent isolated nausea or vomiting for more than 2 days, investigation of the upper gastrointestinal tract is justified after any nongastrointestinal origin and acute intestinal obstruction has been eliminated.
What are the Other Indications for an Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy?
Patients aged above 45 years and/or if there are any warning indications such as anaemia (drop in heamoglobin), difficulty in swallowing, weight loss or any other warning signs and symptoms.
Patients aged below 45 years with no warning signs or symptoms positive diagnostic test for Helicobacter Pylori (a micro organism which only survive in the stomach, which can ultimately cause ulcers) when symptomatic treatment has failed/recurrence occurs at the end of treatment.
Chronic anaemia and/or iron deficiency anaemia after any non-gastrointestinal origin has been eliminated.
Acute gastrointestinal bleeding or black colored stools secondary to bleeding originating in the upper gastrointestinal trac.
Gastro-esophageal reflux (GORD/GERD) with warning signs (weight loss, dysphagia, bleeding, anaemia), or if the patient is aged over 50 years/recurrence on withdrawal of treatment or resistance to medical treatment.
How does one Prepare for an Endoscopy?
Do not eat or drink for at least 6 hours prior to the procedure.
Inform your doctor if you have any allergies, diabetes, heart, respiratory, hypertensive, blood thinning medications, past endoscopies or any other medical problem.
Patient is to be accompanied with a caregiver/relative.
What will Happen After the Procedure?
Patient will be taken to the recovery room where the blood pressure and heart rate is monitored while they rest and a slow drip of IV fluids given.
Patient will generally wake up within ½ hour not realizing that the procedure has already been done and may experience mild disorientation upon waking which will soon pass.
Patient may feel slightly bloated which is normal and this sensation will disappear in a few hours.
Patient will be able to resume normal regular diet, medications and also be able to return to work on the same day after a few hours of rest in most cases.
What are the Risks Involved?
This procedure has a low (0.2%) risk of serious complications.
Potential serious complications include a tear or hole in the lining of the digestive tract called a perforation. Rates of perforations are in the order of less than 1 in 2000 upper endoscopies.
Bleeding complications may be treated immediately during the procedure. Delayed bleeding may also occur at the site of a polyp removal up to a week post procedure and a repeat procedure can then be performed to treat the bleeding site.
Less serious complications would include cardiopulmonary complications such as temporary drop in blood pressure and oxygen saturation. In rare cases, more serious cardiopulmonary events such as a heart attack or stroke may occur but these often occur in critically ill patients with multiple risk factors.